Blood is the most important fluid in the human body. The normal blood contains from about five million red blood cells to six million, in each cubic millimeter. The blood of women contains slightly less than that of men. The body of a woman is smaller and needs fewer red blood cells. Red blood cells grow in the bone marrow. The blood contains fluid matter called plasma which contains some solid substances that settle out, leaving the serum. An examination of the blood is a vital part of any complete physical examination. The doctor may obtain the blood from a puncture of the ear or finger or by putting a needle into a vein. He counts the red blood cells, the white blood cells and the blood platelets; he may determine the amount of sugar or protein in the blood as a whole; he detects the amount of hemoglobin, or red coloring matter. The blood carries the anti-substances against infections, it provides the tissues with oxygen and nutrients and it carries waste matter to the kidneys, where such waste matter is eliminated. It is also responsible for carrying the hormones, or substances of the glands of internal secretion, to various parts of the body. The total amount of blood is equal to about one-thirteenth of the body weight. Of this 78 per cent is water and 22 per cent solid.*12/318/5*


Folklore is replete with suggestions on how to curb snoring, including sleeping on a wooden pillow, as do the Japanese, or having someone whistle near the snorer’s ear. One suggestion frequently proposed is to sew a tennis ball or some other object into the pajamas in order to prevent snorers from sleeping on their backs. Nearly two hundred antisnoring devices have been patented in a vain effort to squelch the problem. These inventions—mostly commercial variations on old folk remedies— range from mouth gags, muzzles, and chin straps to nasal tubes and neck collars to prevent the neck from kinking. Other, somewhat more elaborate methods which have been tried (and have largely failed) include amputation of the uvula (a small fleshy extension of the soft palate, just above the root of the tongue), which was standard operating procedure a century ago, and injection of paraffin or some other hardening agent into the soft palate to make it resistant to vibration.*143\226\8*


Trigeminal neuralgiaThis affects people in the second half of life, affecting women twice as frequently as men. It consists of paroxysms of severe shooting or stabbing pains on one side of the face which are brought on by shaving, eating, talking, or cold draughts. The painful spasms may last only a few seconds but can recur frequently.
The cervical spineAbnormalities of this bone in the neck are often said to be the cause of headache. In fact this is the case much less commonly than supposed; anyone over the age of 50 years may have X-ray changes in the cervical spine but this does not necessarily mean they are the cause of the headaches.There are many other less common causes of headache which come on after certain types of food but are not migrainous or allergic.
The Chinese restaurant syndromeThe symptoms come on within half an hour of starting a Chinese meal. Although headache, affecting chiefly the temples and forehead, is a feature, the chief complaints are of a feeling of tightness or pressure over the face and chest.The offending substance has been found to be a chemical called monosodium glutamate. This compound is added to food to bring out its taste and the reason why Chinese food is often the culprit is because this substance is regularly added in relatively large quantities. It has also been found that three grams is enough to bring on the symptoms in susceptible subjects, particularly on an empty stomach. The syndrome is therefore more likely to occur after soup than after more solid food (absorption of the substance then being less rapid).


Traditionally, researchers have distinguished two hunger-related states in the person of normal weight. The first is essentially what the layperson would regard as hunger, the state in which we desire to eat. This desire to eat initiates the eating response, meaning we reach for food to relieve the hungry sensation.
The second state is characterized by the satisfied feeling that follows eating. Satiety signals that the time has come to stop eating, that the desire for food that initiated the eating episode has been appeased.
Those two hunger-related states have been identified as typical of people of normal weight. However, we are finding the sequence is more complicated, especially in the carbohydrate addict.
At the Carbohydrate Addict’s Center and at the Mount Sinai Medical Center, our research has identified four hunger states.
They are as follows:
Generalized or Common Hunger
This is the strong urge to eat food of any kind. Though intense, this hunger passes in time and later reappears. “Normal” hunger belongs in this classification.
Most carbohydrate addicts report that they have the least difficulty controlling their eating responses to this hunger state.
Specific Hunger or Craving
Craving is the strong desire to eat a specific food (or food group). A craving is not likely to disappear for good and often increases in intensity. Although normals as well as carbohydrate-addicted people experience cravings, this hunger state recurs more often and more intensely in the carbohydrate addict. Craving may escalate in intensity and frequency to a point of addiction.
Discomfort or Dissatisfaction Hunger
This may be thought of as the “nibble-need.” It is a less intense sensation than craving, but is nonetheless a persistent desire to snack. There is often a vague accompanying sense of discomfort; there may also be an accompanying belief that just the right food will “hit the spot,” relieving the sense of dissatisfaction, but the “right food” is illusive.
Rarely is there any awareness of which food or food group will be satisfying. The eater in a state of dissatisfaction will often go from food to food in search of satiety. The classic image for this hunger state is the person standing in front of an open refrigerator, just looking for something to eat. In the carbohydrate addict, this hunger state may typically appear more often, though not necessarily more intensely, than in the normal person.
Subconscious Hunger
This hunger often does not enter one’s awareness before the impulse to eat takes over. Subconscious hunger is characterized by a strong and often uncontrollable desire to eat; it results in the consumption of food without plan or anticipation.
Carbohydrate addicts often describe what we call an impulse-eating incident as occurring with only little awareness of loss of control or of psychological conflict on their parts. Normal eaters and lower-level carbohydrate addicts attribute the impulse-eating incidents to habit, though occasionally they admit that they are unable to stop even when they want to. During impulse eating, food is often consumed quickly with little chewing.
Just as some basic researchers are beginning to explain some of the biological and chemical underpinnings of carbohydrate addiction, the clinical research that we and others are conducting is helping us to understand more about the behavioral-biological links of this disorder.


Stand upright, as erect as you can without any feeling of awkwardness or strain, then swing the
Here there may be a temporary difficulty, because the very movements which can be so effective arms slowly forward and upward until they are level with the shoulders. At the same time, breathe in and draw the tummy upward into the chest. Reverse, breathing out steadily and allowing the abdomen to relax. This movement produces a powerful activation of the ribs, which can in turn improve markedly the composition of the blood.
As a more advanced exercise, extend the same movements so that the arms are carried right above the head, and rise on the toes towards the end of the swing so that everything is raised as high as possible — hands, arms, head, shoulders, chest and abdomen. Repeat until comfortably tired.
Most heart conditions can be improved by intelligently and progressively applied arm and shoulder excesses. These have the double effect of opening out the chest, so that there is more space within for heart and lungs to function, and of inducing a much more active circulation through the ribs. We usually find that after a prolonged spell of depression — physical, nervous or emotional — the whole rib-cage has sagged, giving a flattened and cramped chest. This is the typical attitude of a long-standing heart patient, and there can be a gratifyingly rapid sensation of relief once the more active and open chest has begun to develop.
Here there may be a temporary difficulty, because the very movements which can be so effective  in mobilizing the chest can also cause quite acute distress when first attempted. In this case, patience and perseverance are required. Start with the arms bent, finger-tips on the shoulders, and raise the elbows in time with inspiration for a few repetitions. Gradually increase the number o movements in each session, then try a few with the arms extended. In time the full range of movement, with quite vigorous action, should become possible. In occasional cases, it may be necessary to seek skilled assistance to loosen over-tense neck and shoulder muscles before these exercises can be effectively carried out.


In 1977 tamoxifen was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the treatment of breast cancer, initially only in postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. Of this population approximately one-third responded to tamoxifen treatment. When used in addition to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic disease, a higher response rate, a longer time to treatment failure, and improved survival were reported. In postmenopausal patients tamoxifen appeared to be effective at virtually all stages of disease, with its major contribution in patients who had exhausted most other forms of hormonal therapy.
Since most tumors are a mixture of estrogen-receptor-positive and estrogen-receptor-negative cells, and tamoxifen specifically inhibits cells with estrogen receptors, combination therapy using both cytotoxic drugs and tamoxifen has been suggested to prevent the recurrence of the estrogen-receptor-negative cells. Clinical trials examining the simultaneous use of chemotherapy and tamoxifen suggest that the drugs probably should not be given at the same time. Although higher response rates were achieved in some studies when the drugs were given together, most analyses have shown that the overall survival of patients is not prolonged by simultaneous administration.
The administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen has been examined in several programs. Sequential administration appears to avoid the problems noted when the drugs are administered simultaneously. Patients treated sequentially seem to have fewer residual side effects from chemotherapy during tamoxifen treatment, which may ultimately improve their quality of life. Sequential use has also been demonstrated to be very effective in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In advanced disease the sequential addition of tamoxifen to chemotherapy results in some patients having a higher response rate, a longer time until treatment failure, and improved overall survival.


Before you set out to gain more fresh air or try other methods of relief, it would be wise to know which type of constipation you have. There are three forms of this malady which can complicate arthritis:
Insufficient expressing of the excrement.
Insufficient quantity.
Evacuations of abnormally dry and hard stools.
The best way to check on your degree of constipation is to examine daily stools.
Continued evacuation of abnormally coloured stools should cause an arthritic to consult his doctor. Lienteric stools containing much undigested food usually signify profound intestinal disorder.
If an arthritic discharges watery or serous stools, it may be due to nervousness, enteritis, or cholera. Pus-like stools may arise from ulceration along the digestive tract or from the rupture of an adjacent abscess in the bowel.
Lastly, arthritics should know that black, red, or bloody stools are danger signals. They are caused by internal haemorrhages, haemorrhoids, or by the use of drugs. Any of the above signs should cause you to seek medical attention promptly.
Other symptoms of constipation include fatigue, coated tongue, headaches, instability, nervousness, and bad breath.
Halitosis often results from excessive putrefaction in the colon. Sharp odours begin to arise in the colon and the air cells in the lungs begin to expel the toxic aromas. Decaying processes caused by over-indulgence in cake and sweets lead to unfavourable changes in the breath. Free use of citric juices and soda pop can raise havoc with the digestive tract itself and cause it to degenerate. This also results in foul breath.
Skin blemishes can be evidence of constipation. They appear when toxic materials have become stagnant in your body.
Why are we devoting so much space to this problem of keeping regular? Because both arthritis and constipation can be caused by the same mistakes. And either ailment can be caused by the other.
Therefore let us continue our examination into this vital subject.
A Leading Doctor’s Opinion
The greatest work we have ever read in regard to constipation is a report in the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine by Dr. A. A. Fletcher of Toronto, Canada.
Dr. Fletcher mentions the experiments of Dr. R. McCarrison on sluggish monkeys. McCarrison reported that when he put monkeys on a bacteria free diet, high in starches, their colon lost muscle tone and the membrane degenerated. The bowel changes in his experimental animals were structurally and causally of the same nature as those found in human victims of chronically constipated arthritis.
Because the diets were sterilised, bacteria as a cause of arthritis was ruled out. These tests also condemned high starch intake in constipation. It was important to rule out bacteria, because until then rheumatologists were bacteria conscious. They thought that arthritis was caused by infection.
Dr. Fletcher also reported that when Dr. R. Pemberton restricted “inferior-type” starches in the diets (like cake and sweets) of his human arthritic patients, their bowel actions were better, especially if vitamins were added to the diet. The doctors felt that a high starch diet precipitated border-line vitamin deficiencies. And that during the state of malnutrition the body was more susceptible to germ invasion.
Dr. Fletcher’s findings made it clear that more than one vitamin is deficient in the constipated person. Any diet which brings on constipation shows a multiple vitamin deficiency. The doctor stated, however, that it is predominantly a vitamin B deficiency which causes the bowel to break down and to lose its digestive action.


Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a severe infectious disease with chills, fever, prostration, and a hemorrhagic rash. It is caused by a Rickettsial organism and is transmitted by wood ticks. A disease called Brazilian typhus is identical, as are Mediterranean fever, South African tick-bite fever and Kenya fever.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is largely a rural disease; it has been found in every state in the United States except Maine and Vermont. It occurs chiefly during the warm months of the year when the ticks are active. Indeed the only insects known to spread the disease are the ticks. These include the wood tick, the dog tick, the lone star tick, and the rabbit tick. The tick attaches itself to an infected animal and transfers the infection to man.
Two to fourteen days after being bitten, the illness comes on abruptly with chills, fever, severe frontal or occipital headache, pains in the muscles and joints and sensitivity of the eyes to pressure and to light. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, nosebleed, a mild cough and similar symptoms appear, along with a fever which will rise rapidly from 103 to 105 degrees.
A rash is characteristic. It develops two to six days after the onset of the illness, usually first around the wrists and ankles and then spreading to involve the entire body surface. Several crops of the rash may appear, one after the other. Sometimes the rashes become hemorrhagic. The damage may be so great that gangrenous changes occur in the skin on the tips of the fingers, the toes, the earlobes and even on the soft palate. Secondary to these infections may be pneumonias, hemorrhages of the stomach and intestines and kidneys and serious inflammations of the eyes.
Vaccines have been prepared which are used to immunize people against Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Fortunately, chloromycetin, aureomycin, terramycin and para-amino benzoic acid have proved to be beneficial in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The condition was formerly much more severe than since the new antibiotics have been developed. Once from 12 to 25 per cent of those infected died of the condition but it seems likely that with the new antibiotic drugs something less than 5 per cent of deaths will occur.


The endocrine system is very important, especially with regard to acne. To help the endocrine system, in order to achieve the correct hormonal secretions and balance, it is essential to take evening primrose oil and certain vitamins. Walking, jogging and breathing exercises are also helpful. There are twenty or more little nerve centres situated in the solar plexus, with nerves extending to the different organs of the body, so deep breathing is relaxing as well as stimulating. Little veins accompany the nerves, carrying the blood to the different parts of the organs. Breathing exercises are good for minor hormonal disturbances, and, by consciously breathing deeply into the solar plexus, immediate contact is made with the different nerve centres, sending the nerve energy through to open up congestion, giving arteries a chance to force red blood and natural heat into the body and on to the various locations that may have been isolated. Try placing the left hand first on the solar plexus, then cover this hand with the right, and you form a magnetic ring. Breathe in and out slowly. For those of you who would like to develop this concept further, more detailed advice on breathing and other exercises can be found in my books Stress and Nervous Disorders and Body Energy. Such exercises are excellent as a general promoting influence for the nervous system.
The nervous system is made up of two parts; the involuntary and sympathetic systems. The more you can relax this busy hormonal housekeeping, the more you relax the nerves, and the skin will flourish. A little time, effort and thought, will go a long way towards overcoming unwanted acne problems.
Now I turn to a very much bigger problem, which can be equally persistent, but much more difficult to control. This is Acne rosacea, a chronic disease of the skin affecting the fleshy areas of the face, the nose, cheeks, chin and forehead, occurring in both sexes, usually in middle life. This condition is caused by neurovascular instability, endocrine disorders, gastro-intestinal conditions, food problems, infections, alcoholism, allergies, and various other factors. I remember that Acne rosacea was once briefly mentioned in a Gloria Hunniford programme on BBC Radio 2. When we discussed this problem I had no idea of the hundreds of letters that would reach me from people looking for an answer to this particular problem. Although over the years I have seen quite a number of cases in my practice, I did not realise that there were so many sufferers, hence the reason that I decided to set aside a section for it in this chapter.
In recent times our eating habits have changed considerably and this is probably the reason behind the large number of Acne rosacea cases, and I have had many requests for help from people who had previously attended skin clinics and dermatologists and yet had not found a cure. I have achieved my most notable successes by concentrating on clearing the lymphatic system. In doing so I have discovered that severely inflamed cases cleared especially quickly. For all of us it would be wise to give some consideration to the lymphatic system, which performs a miraculous job, much of it during our sleeping hours. Considering its influence and importance, I will try to explain why the lymphatic system is under such threat.


So much for elongating muscles. I am sure there will still be sceptics who will argue that I have no scientific proof and therefore I must be wrong. This selective argument is often used by people who simply do not want to believe something, carefully glossing over those things they have to believe in but can’t explain (such people probably wouldn’t ‘believe in’ acupuncture or most of the functions of the brain). To those I say, all right don’t believe it. Maybe there is some other explanation, that nobody has thought of yet, for the anti-gravitational force. Let us not argue about it. The fact is, and this is unarguable, that the posture-maintaining muscles and general muscle tone do create an anti-gravitational force that counteracts or neutralises part of the body’s actual weight. In my concept of backache, this anti-gravitational force, crested totf posture-maintaining muscles and general muscle tone, plays a very important role. It is almost like the vital force of the back. The greater the force the less the pressure on the spine’s joints and discs and on the joints of the leg.

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